In the inner part of the basilica, we immediately notice the circularity of the structure that presents the environment, the white marble Lasa on which the altar is placed, which houses the shrine with Our Lady of Tears, immediately draws the attention of the faithful. Above the altar there is a precious crucifix dated and the original half bust that was the protagonist of the tearing in the house Iannuso.
The base of the altar is made of bronze, and is composed of four panels depicting some scenes from the book of the Apocalypse: the throne, the new Jerusalem, the lamb; and on the right, the tree of life, the column and the scroll. The Sanctuary is divided into 16 small chapels on two levels, 5 at the sides of the central room, and 11 in the crypt of which we will discuss later. Below the Basilica there is a Crypt, the latter was inaugurated on August 28, , is accessed from 18 entrances and has a capacity of 3, seats. It shows a circular shape with an external diameter of 80 meters, the internal one of 38 meters and a height of 9 meters.
The altar of the crypt is placed on a red granite floor, the presbytery is in a semicircle, here was housed the picture of Our Lady of Tears from to and, subsequently, from May 1, to November 4, Inside this crypt, there are several chapels, one of which is used for the celebration of the Sacrament of Reconciliation, another, instead, houses a crib with handmade terracotta sculptures from different eras by craftsmen from the city of Caltagirone, famous for its pottery. The remaining 8 chapels feature large mosaic icons dedicated to the Holy Family, St. Lucia, St.
Agatha, St. Corrado, St. The main altar of the crypt also houses an important burial chamber dating back to the Byzantine period AD — AD , under which there are two small rooms dating back to the Greco-Roman period, near which flows a small stream, the latter unfortunately is not accessible. The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Tears is surrounded by a botanical park that extends for nearly 17, square meters, where there are more than different species of plants: trees, palms, evergreen shrubs, flowering shrubs, various shrubs, flowering herbaceous plants, cacti.
The different species of plants and flowers present, make it a place full of colors throughout the year, colors that are renewed with the passing of the seasons, so as to create an oasis of silence, peace, beauty in which you can meditate. The entire Park of the Sanctuary was designed by the landscape architect Nino Attardo and also includes service areas: walkways, Via Crucis, Mysteries of the Rosary, Stele della Madonnina, reception area for pilgrims, thus reaching 35, square meters.
Friday, September 27, Siracusa Travel.
Pantalica tour. Boat tour in the Ciane reserve. Vendicari and Marzamemi Excursion. Cavagrande del Cassibile excursion. Extra-urban Ast service. AST city bus service. Shuttle bus to Syracuse. Villa Gallo a due passi dal mare Fontane Bianche. Casetta Atena. Casa Arancia a due passi dal mare. Villa marina a due passi dal mare Fontane bianche.
Bistrot del mar — Fontane bianche. Cod da Saretta — English Breakfast. La Locanda del collegio. In the 16th century and probably continuing into the early 17th century, the image was modified by then adding the mandorla -shaped sunburst around the Virgin, the stars on her cloak, the moon under her feet, and the angel with a folded cloth supporting her — as was determined by an infrared and ocular study of the tilma in It also contains the following glosses: " Also in that year of appeared to Cuahtlatoatzin our beloved mother the Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico.
Cuahtlatoatzin died worthily" . This tract contains a section called the Nican mopohua "Here it is recounted" , which has been already touched on above. It has been attributed since the late s to Antonio Valeriano ca. Most authorities agree on the dating and on Valeriano's authorship. Two separate accounts, one in Nahuatl from Juan Bautista del Barrio de San Juan from the 16th century,  and the other in Spanish by Servando Teresa de Mier  date the original apparition and native celebration on September 8 of the Julian calendar , but it is also noted that the Spaniards celebrate it on December 12 instead.
The initiative to perform them was made by Francisco de Siles who proposed to ask the Church of Rome, a Mass itself with allusive text to the apparitions and stamping of the image, along with the divine office itself, and the precept of hearing a Catholic Mass on December 12, the last date of the apparitions of the Virgin to Juan Diego as the new date to commemorate the apparitions which until then was on September 8, the birth of the Virgin.
These published documental accounts of the origin of the image already venerated in Tepeya, then increased interest in the identity of Juan Diego, who was the original recipient of the prime vision. A new Catholic Basilica church was built to house the image. Completed in , it is now known as the Old Basilica.
The image had originally featured a point crown on the Virgin's head, but this disappeared in — The change was first noticed on 23 February , when the image was removed to a nearby church. This may have been motivated by the fact that the gold paint was flaking off of the crown, leaving it looking dilapidated.
But according to the historian David Brading , "the decision to remove rather than replace the crown was no doubt inspired by a desire to 'modernize' the image and reinforce its similarity to the nineteenth-century images of the Immaculate Conception which were exhibited at Lourdes and elsewhere What is rarely mentioned is that the frame which surrounded the canvas was adjusted to leave almost no space above the Virgin's head, thereby obscuring the effects of the erasure.
A different crown was installed to the image. During his leadership, the Congregation for the Causes of Saints declared Juan Diego "venerable" in , and the pope himself announced his beatification on 6 May , during a Mass at the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City, declaring him "protector and advocate of the indigenous peoples," with December 9 established as his feast day.
At that time historians revived doubts as to the quality of the evidence regarding Juan Diego. The record of the ecclesiastical inquiry omitted him, and he was not mentioned in documentation before the midth century. In the year-old abbot of the Basilica of Guadalupe , Guillermo Schulenburg , was forced to resign following an interview published in the Catholic magazine Ixthus, in which he was quoted as saying that Juan Diego was "a symbol, not a reality", and that his canonization would be the "recognition of a cult.
It is not recognition of the physical, real existence of a person. He concluded that Juan Diego had not existed.
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In , Father Xavier Escalada, a Jesuit whose four volume Guadalupe encyclopedia had just been published, announced the existence of a sheet of parchment known as Codex Escalada , which bore an illustrated account of the vision and some notations in Nahuatl concerning the life and death of Juan Diego. Previously unknown, the document was dated The codex was the subject of an appendix to the Guadalupe encyclopedia, published in Paul's vision of Christ on the road to Damascus , drawn by St.
Luke and signed by St. In the earliest account of the apparition, the Nican Mopohua , the Virgin de Guadalupe, later called as if the Virgin Mary tells Juan Bernardino, the uncle of Juan Diego , that the image left on the tilma is to be known by the name "the Perfect Virgin, Holy Mary of Guadalupe.
Scholars do not agree as to how the name "Guadalupe" was ascribed to the image.
Others hold that the Spanish name Guadalupe is the original name, and refers to the Spanish Our Lady of Guadalupe, Extremadura , whose cult had been important in Spain in the 16th century and had been brought to the New World with the Spanish conquest. The first theory to promote a Nahuatl origin was that of Luis Becerra Tanco. In addition, the Virgin Mary was portrayed in European art as crushing the serpent of the Garden of Eden.
This appears to be borne out by the fact that this goddess already had a temple dedicated to her on the very Tepeyac Hill where Juan Diego had his vision, the same temple which had recently been destroyed at the behest of the new Spanish Catholic authorities. In the 16th century the Franciscans were suspicious that the followers of Guadalupe showed, or was susceptible to, elements of syncretism , i.
The theory promoting the Spanish language origin of the name claims that:. The portrait was executed on a fabric support of natural material constituted by two pieces originally three joined together. The join is clearly visible as a seam passing from top to bottom, with the Virgin's face and hands and the head of the angel on the left piece.
It passes through the left wrist of the Virgin. The fabric is mounted on a large metal sheet to which it has been glued for some time. At this point, there is a wide gap between the wall and the sanctuary facilitating closer viewing from moving walkways set on the floor beneath the main level of the basilica, carrying people a short distance in either direction.
Viewed from the main body of the basilica, the image is located above and to the right of the altar and is retracted at night into a small vault accessible by steps set into the wall.
Our Lady of Guadalupe
The nature of the fabric is discussed below. Neither the fabric "the support" nor the image together, "the tilma" has been analyzed using the full range of resources now available to museum conservationists. Four technical studies have been conducted so far. Of these, the findings of at least three have been published. Each study required the permission of the custodians of the tilma in the Basilica.
the many faces of Mary
However, Callahan's study was taken at the initiative of a third party: the custodians did not know in advance what his research would reveal. Virgil Elizondo says the image also had layers of meaning for the indigenous people of Mexico who associated her image with their polytheistic deities, which further contributed to her popularity. Morelos adopted the Virgin as the seal of his Congress of Chilpancingo , inscribing her feast day into the Chilpancingo constitution and declaring that Guadalupe was the power behind his victories:.
New Spain puts less faith in its own efforts than in the power of God and the intercession of its Blessed Mother, who appeared within the precincts of Tepeyac as the miraculous image of Guadalupe that had come to comfort us, defend us, visibly be our protection. In , Emiliano Zapata 's peasant army rose out of the south against the government of Francisco Madero. By the 16th century the Extremadura Guadalupe, a statue of the Virgin said to be carved by Saint Luke the Evangelist, was already a national icon.
It was found at the beginning of the 14th century when the Virgin appeared to a humble shepherd and ordered him to dig at the site of the apparition. The recovered Virgin then miraculously helped to expel the Moors from Spain, and her small shrine evolved into the great Guadalupe monastery. According to the traditional account, the name of Guadalupe, as the name was heard or understood by Spaniards, was chosen by the Virgin herself when she appeared on the hill outside Mexico City in , ten years after the Conquest.
Guadalupe continues to be a mixture of the cultures which blended to form Mexico, both racially and religiously,  "the first mestiza ",  or "the first Mexican". Cisneros' story is constructed out of brief notes that people give Our Lady of Guadalupe in thanks for favors received, which in Cisneros' hands becomes a portrait of an extended Chicano community living throughout Texas. In Chayo's words, "I finally understood who you are. Your church at Tepeyac built on the site of her temple" Our Lady of Guadalupe, Juan Diego, and the tilma have been investigated through film several times in recent history.
Several Pontiffs have honored the image, specifically:. Roman Catholic sources claim that the original image has many miraculous and supernatural properties, including that the tilma has maintained its structural integrity for approximately years despite exposure to soot, candle wax, incense, constant manual veneration by devotees, the historical fact that the image was displayed without any protective glass for its first years, while replicas normally endure for only circa 15 years before degrading,  and that it repaired itself with no external assistance after a accident in which nitric acid was spilled on its top right, causing considerable damage but leaving the aureola of the Virgin intact.
Furthermore, on 14 November a bomb hidden within a basket of flowers and left under the tilma by an anti-Catholic secularist exploded and damaged the altar of the Basilica that houses the original image, but the tilma was unharmed. A brass standing crucifix, bent by the explosion, is now preserved at the shrine's museum and is believed to be miraculous by devotees. In and photographers claimed to have found a figure reflected in the Virgin's eyes; upon inspection they said that the reflection was tripled in what is called the Purkinje effect , commonly found in human eyes.
Numerous Catholic websites repeat the claim  that in biochemist Richard Kuhn analyzed a sample of the fabric and announced that the pigments used were from no known source, whether animal, mineral, or vegetable. Philip Serna Callahan, who photographed the icon under infrared light, declared from his photographs that portions of the face, hands, robe, and mantle had been painted in one step, with no sketches or corrections and no visible brush strokes.