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  1. Persian Gulf War - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History
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Therefore, we find that these think tanks developed programs to deal with the unstable reality of the Middle East and the Gulf region Ibrahim, The media distorts the image of the Arab world as a result of the control of Jews and pro-Israel groups on the media in the USA that prevents any rapprochement with the Arab side and harms the Arab interests in the US. There was opposition to the war on Iraq, but the media was able to impose a pattern of one position, which promoted the US War on Afghanistan and Iraq. Therefore, the USA was pressing the Gulf countries to reform the educational system.

There are a set of external determinants governing the US foreign policy toward the Gulf region. The study will discuss briefly these external determinants. After the stability of the nature of the international system, we find that the international variables do not indicate a significant decline in the status of the USA. However, these variables indicate the rise of other competing poles.

The world is now characterized by multi-polarity, although USA is still dominant in terms of military power and is still the biggest external player in the political field Mohamed, Whatever the nature of the international system, whether was a unipolar system or a multipolar one, the US foreign policy toward the Gulf region did not and will not change. The Gulf is one of the main areas of influence of the USA. It is always seeking to be present in this region due to its importance in the American strategy and doctrine.

Oil security is one of the most important strategic objectives of the USA. Therefore, the US oil interests were protected by the bases and military alliances established by the USA. The main American strategic objective of the Truman principle is that the Middle East Oil depots are surrounded by fence where the US armed force can depend on these depots at any time Al-Rumaihi, Bush stressed the importance of oil as a major determinant of the US foreign policy on the grounds that the control of US over the world starts from its control global oil fields National Security Strategy of the USA, There has recently been controversy in the USA where some see that the USA may dispense with the Gulf oil as a result of the discovery of rock oil.

However, the decline of oil prices led to a decline in the production of rock oil because of the high cost of rock oil production. Also, the USA is keen to keep oil under its control in the light of the rising global consumption of international powers China, Japan and western Europe. The US states wants to control Gulf oil to control the sources of energy of these countries. Accordingly, it must be emphasized that one of the objectives of US foreign policy is to control the Gulf oil, which gives it a dual interest.

The USA will ensure the security of its energy and face the rising powers. This matter refutes some allegations that the USA will dispense with the Gulf region.

Persian Gulf War - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of American History

There is a correlation between them. The USA considers Israel as a strategic ally in the Region and deterrent element to the regional powers. The first was to the war on terror, which was a response to the breach of security barriers in New York. The second was to the elimination of the new list of Evil Axis countries North Korea, Iran and Iraq , which have a nuclear program or seek to have weapons of mass destruction.

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The third was to the establishment of democratic systems in the Middle East Al-Taei, President George W. Bush announced that the promotion of democracy and respect for human rights is an independent policy for the USA. This was highlighted by the head of the American delegation at the meetings of the 57th United Nations Commission on Human Rights held in March , before the events of September.

US Iran standoff: Assault ship and missile battery deployed to Persian Gulf - DW News

The head of delegation pointed out that President Bush pays great attention to the issue of the protection of human rights Hancook, After the outbreak of the events of September 11, the issue of democratization has returned to the top priorities of the US policy, where the dissemination and promotion of the values of democracy became a key concept in US foreign policy. The then US administration believed that the events of September 11 were the result of the lack of political and economic freedom in the Middle East. For this, terrorist organizations such as Al-Qaeda have been emerged. Therefore, the USA placed the issue of the dissemination of the rules of democracy within its political agenda because this represents an approach through which the USA can fight against terrorism and eradicate the sources of terrorism Alessandri et al.

Thus, the US administration opened the file of democracy and political reform in some Arab countries, including the Gulf countries. Based on this vision, the issue of political and educational reform dominated the relationship between the USA and the Gulf countries.

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Saudi Arabia was the most targeted Gulf countries by the American campaign based on the saying that 15 Saudis participated in the attacks of September, which indicates the extremism of governance and society in the Kingdom. Thus, there is a dire need to put pressure on the Kingdom in a manner consistent with the goals and interests of the USA.

The Bush administration found that terrorism was born in the womb of political, cultural and religious conditions that need to be eradicated and rehabilitated such as the lack of democratic life, religious isolation and educational programs that produce a culture of hatred against the USA and the West as a whole. It is therefore necessary to change this environment and to create an environment that fights terrorism by restructuring the official religious establishment and charitable institutions that finance terrorist organizations Al-Tabli, The Bush administration adopted key mechanisms for democratization and the promotion of human rights in the Arab region such as political pressure and initiatives calling for political reform in the region as the Greater Middle East Initiative.

The USA also relied on the mechanism of politicalized reports, which fall within the so-called the diplomacy of coercion. This diplomacy means the annual reports issued by the US State Department after the events of September. Congress authorizes the state of Department to issue these reports.

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These reports focus on a number of issues related to the nature and form of existing political systems such as the lack of political participation, restrictions imposed on public freedoms, namely, the freedom of opinion, expression and press, and the issues of women and the conditions of religious freedom El-Essawi, According to Swan, :. Combating terrorism and punishing the countries that sponsor it were main objectives for US foreign after the events of September, which is known as the Bush Doctrine Who is not with us is against us.

This means that the Bush administration has put the goal of the war on terror in the same position of the goal of fighting communism during the Cold War. The Bush administration penetrated and excluded international conventions and norms and even international legitimacy as they undermine the United States. Indeed, the USA waged a war on Afghanistan. However, Saudi Arabia refused to use its territories for air strikes. Also, the exchange of information between intelligence services in both parties has been enhanced Katzman and Thomas, Tension between both parties was the most difficult matter since the oil embargoes.

Many analysts argued that Al-Qaeda planners might have chosen a large number of Saudi participants in an attempt to harm Saudi Arabia and the Gulf.

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In return, Saudi officials acknowledged the negative impact of these attacks on the USA Blanchard, The most important regional issue of common interest between the USA and the Gulf countries during the period of Bush is the issue of the invasion of Iraq. The US war on terrorism was not confined to Afghanistan, but it extended to a comprehensive war against terrorist groups and organizations and their sponsors. However, the results of war were disappointing.

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  • The Iranian influence in the region increased as a result of this war, although one of the direct aims of this war was to isolate Iran and Syria Duffield and Dombrowski, It can be said that the US occupation of Iraq led to the creation of new conditions in the region that had direct repercussions on the development of political conditions in it. The war revealed a new American vision of the regional system of the Gulf, which is the militarization of the Gulf region.

    The USA is looking at the Gulf region as a theater of its review operations to devote its uniqueness in the international arena. This contributed to the complexity of regional security landscape. Concurrently, this led to the imbalance of power in the region at the expense of the Arab and regional political presence, creating a vacuum that non-Arab neighboring countries, particularly Iran and Turkey, sought to occupy it, where the two countries have large regional and political projects Garghoun, However, the weakness of the post-Saddam regime encouraged Iran to undertake a more active role in the security of the Gulf and to seek to lead the system in the Gulf region.

    In particular, Iran has weapons of mass destruction programs. In general, the invasion of Iraq was not a source of tension between the USA and the Gulf, but the source of tension between the two parties was related to the two previous elements mentioned above, which are the promotion of democracy and terrorism. These mechanisms were used as a result of the failure of previous mechanisms such as double containment and diplomatic pressure Al-Tarawana, There were very precise files in the USA—Iran relations during that period.

    For example, the USA accused Iran of supporting terrorism. Furthermore, the USA accused Iran of possessing nuclear weapons. Therefore, the US foreign policy toward Iran represented an element of agreement between the American side and his Gulf counterpart. It was believed that the arrival of Barack Obama to power in is a new change in the performance of the US foreign policy as a whole by seeking to change the US diplomacy that prevailed during the era of Bush and conservatives.

    President Obama has sought to make US policy more flexible in external dealing with various issues after adopting for a long time the hard power by using military force.

    The Obama administration tried to balance the mechanisms of hard and soft power, especially diplomacy Zakria, This was confirmed by his Secretary of State Hillary Clinton when she said that:. At the Gulf level, the election of President Obama was generally a positive element for the Gulf countries with regard to its regional security, which was in a bad manner under Bush administration Koch, Obama sought to develop a new strategy for US policy toward the Gulf region. This strategy emerged in his address before the General Assembly of the United Nations, which focused on a set of key elements Sick, : The USA is prepared to use all elements of force, including military force, to secure its fundamental interests in the Gulf region.

    External aggression against US allies and partners, as happened in the Gulf War, will be addressed. The Gulf countries found that the rhetoric of Washington has improved under Obama, which is welcomed by the Gulf countries, but in return, the policies have not changed Sick, In this vein, the study will discuss the same four main axes, as discussed during the Bush administration, which are:. The Obama administration inherited the policy of promoting democracy from the Bush administration, which sought to change the Iraqi regime by force under the name of democratization.

    Thus, the reputation of the USA as a symbol of democracy and human rights has been damaged. The Obama administration saw that the USA must move away from supporting democracy, and that change in the Middle East must come from inside. Therefore, Obama refused to use force as a means of promoting democracy. The national security strategy of affirmed the commitment of the USA to lead international alliances to face the major challenges arising from aggression and terrorism.

    In particular, the USA abandoned the policy of involvement in the costly and widespread land wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in which the US forces bore enormous burdens.