- Beyond the Textbook: Using Trade Books and Databases to Teach Our Nation's History, Grades 7-12
- Beyond the Textbook by Carianne Bernadowski, Robert Del Greco | Waterstones
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Beyond the Textbook: Using Trade Books and Databases to Teach Our Nation's History, Grades 7-12
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Beyond the Textbook by Carianne Bernadowski, Robert Del Greco | Waterstones
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Mental Arithmetic 2 Answers. It is your responsibility to determine the licensing needs of the content you use. What is the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine? The calendar will automatically update to the most recent snapshot of that page. Scroll down to where you see a colored circle around the a date and click on that date for a link to the recorded snapshot from that date. You will be taken to the archive of that webpage. The page will appear as it was at the time the snapshot was recorded.
If this is a page that you intend to access in the future, you may want to bookmark the Wayback Machine URL so you can easily return to it later. Can I use these resources? The indicators in this chart are indexed, so they show changes relative to the levels of integration observed in This gives us another viewpoint to understand how quickly global integration collapsed with the two World Wars.
Integration in the goods markets is measured here through the 'trade openness index', which is defined by the sum of exports and imports as share of GDP. In this interactive chart you can explore trends in trade openness over this period for a selection of European countries. The world-wide expansion of trade after the Second World War was largely possible because of reductions in transaction costs stemming from technological advances, such as the development of commercial civil aviation, the improvement of productivity in the merchant marines, and the democratization of the telephone as the main mode of communication.
The visualization below shows how, at the global level, costs across these three variables have been going down since The reductions in transaction costs had an impact, not only on the volumes of trade, but also on the types of exchanges that were possible and profitable. The first wave of globalization was characterized by inter-industry trade. This means that countries exported goods that were very different to what they imported — England exchanged machines for Australian wool and Indian tea.
As transaction costs went down, this changed. In the second wave of globalization we are seeing a rise in intra -industry trade i. France, for example, now both imports and exports machines to and from Germany. The following visualization, from the UN World Development Report , plots the fraction of total world trade that is accounted for by intra-industry trade, by type of goods. As we can see, intra-industry trade has been going up for primary, intermediate and final goods. This pattern of trade is important because the scope for specialization increases if countries are able to exchange intermediate goods e.
Above we took a look at the broad global trends over the last two centuries. Let's now zoom in on country-level trends over this long and dynamic period. The next chart plots estimates of the value of trade in goods, relative to total economic activity i. These historical estimates obviously come with a large margin of error in the measurement section below we discuss the data limitations ; yet they offer an interesting perspective. You can add more series by clicking on the option 'Add country'. Yves Montand gave wildly successful concerts in Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev.
co.organiccrap.com/126431.php The Pushkin Museum began to get its Impressionist paintings out of storage, and big exhibitions from both Soviet and French collections followed. The mids also brought something harder to digest than the Impressionists: Picasso, whose work his own selection was exhibited in Moscow and Leningrad in and provoked passionate controversy. Some embraced his work as representing a quintessential break with the Stalinist past; others saw it as ugly and perverse.
Heated debates took place in student dormitories, editorial offices, even city squares, and the queues to get into the exhibition were huge. It was an act of imaginative re-creation involving subjective input on the part of the translator. It was their task to make the film comprehensible — emotionally as well as literally — to Soviet viewers, and sometimes heroic measures were called for.
Soviet dubbing directors aimed to make their versions better than the originals — psychologically deeper and emotionally more transparent. While the number of Soviet tourists going to the West remained comparatively small, it was growing, and many Soviet writers were among the tourists.
They wrote of the great cities of Europe as intimately familiar, through their representation in literature and painting, but at the same time miraculously unknown. The Soviet love affair with the West was bound to end in disappointment. Once Russians were free to travel, even to emigrate and live in Paris for good if they could afford it, Paris was no longer a dream. That is one of the paradoxes of the situation she describes.
The love affair with Western culture did not, as might first have appeared, involve a repudiation of Sovietness. On the contrary, to love Western culture was a token of Soviet culturedness kulturnost , something to be expected of every educated and cultivated Soviet citizen. As any visiting foreigner who was ever quizzed about the novels of Walter Scott or Theodore Dreiser and found wanting will attest, Soviet citizens often thought they knew more than Western natives about Western culture or at least the canonical Soviet version , and loved it better — and they were right.
There were Russians who liked capitalism, but these were not the cultured Russians — the Soviet intelligentsia, broadly construed — that Gilburd is writing about. A disclaimer is in order here: in the s, Gilburd studied with me as an undergraduate at the University of Chicago, where she now teaches Soviet history.
The underlying nostalgia is for whatever it was in Soviet society that made culture including, but not only, Western culture so important and fostered such strong collective emotions about it.