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The major risk factors for cardiac disease include cigarette smoking, blood lipid abnormalities, elevated blood pressure and glucose, all of which should be reduced to recommended levels. Aggressive lifestyle changes, and in some cases medication, can improve most if not all components of metabolic syndrome. It will also lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Aerobic exercise such as a brisk minute daily walk can be highly effective in improving insulin levels, facilitating weight loss, and improving related symptoms. Most practitioners recommend minutes daily of moderate intensity exercise on at least five days a week either divided throughout the day or all at once; the same benefit is achieved either way.

All of these emphasize fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, while limiting unhealthy fats and promoting leaner protein foods like low-fat dairy and lean meats like chicken and fish. A primary intervention for metabolic syndrome is to initiate smoking cessation programs. Smoking cigarettes increases insulin resistance and worsens the health consequences of metabolic syndrome.

Doctors may also prescribe medications to lower blood pressure, control cholesterol or help you lose weight.

Metabolic disorders

Insulin sensitizers like Glucophage Metformin may be prescribed to help your body use insulin more effectively. It lowers blood sugar, which also seems to help lower cholesterol and triglycerides as well as decreasing appetite. The side effects of Metformin often temporary include nausea, stomach pain, bloating and diarrhea.

A more serious side effect, lactic acidosis, can affect those with kidney or liver disease, severe heart failure or a history of alcohol abuse and is potentially, though rarely, fatal. Aspirin therapy is often given to help reduce risk of heart attack and stroke.


Stay Connected With Dr. Anti-Inflammatory Diet Follow Dr. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders. Whether it is better at this time to set the level at which risk starts to increase or at which there is already substantially increased risk will be up to local decision-making groups. However, for international comparisons and to facilitate the etiology, it is critical that a commonly agreed-upon set of criteria be used worldwide, with agreed-upon cut points for different ethnic groups and sexes. There are many people in the world of mixed ethnicity, and in those cases, pragmatic decisions will have to be made.

The previous definitions of the metabolic syndrome by the International Diabetes Federation [40] and the revised National Cholesterol Education Program are very similar and they identify individuals with a given set of symptoms as having metabolic syndrome. However, this potentially excludes any subject without increased waist circumference if BMI is less than Conversely, the NCEP definition indicates that metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed based on other criteria. Also, the IDF uses geography-specific cut points for waist circumference, while NCEP uses only one set of cut points for waist circumference regardless of geography.

The International Diabetes Federation [40] consensus worldwide definition of the metabolic syndrome is: Central obesity defined as waist circumference with ethnicity-specific values AND any two of the following:.


The World Health Organization criteria [41] require the presence of any one of diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance , impaired fasting glucose or insulin resistance , AND two of the following:. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein has been developed and used as a marker to predict coronary vascular diseases in metabolic syndrome, and it was recently used as a predictor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease steatohepatitis in correlation with serum markers that indicated lipid and glucose metabolism.

Reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age , and erectile dysfunction or decreased total testosterone low testosterone-binding globulin in men can be attributed to metabolic syndrome. There is research that associates comorbidity with rheumatic diseases. Both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome. Various strategies have been proposed to prevent the development of metabolic syndrome.

These include increased physical activity such as walking 30 minutes every day , [48] and a healthy, reduced calorie diet.

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However, one study stated these potentially beneficial measures are effective in only a minority of people, primarily due to a lack of compliance with lifestyle and diet changes. Generally, the individual disorders that compose the metabolic syndrome are treated separately. Dietary carbohydrate restriction reduces blood glucose levels, contributes to weight loss, and reduces the use of several medications that may be prescribed for metabolic syndrome.

Approximately 20—25 percent of the world's adult population has the cluster of risk factors that is metabolic syndrome. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Metabolic syndrome Other names Dysmetabolic syndrome X A man with marked central obesity, a hallmark of metabolic syndrome. His weight is kg lbs , height cm 6 ft 1 in , and body mass index BMI 53 normal Specialty Endocrinology Metabolic syndrome , sometimes known by other names , is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity , high blood pressure , high blood sugar , high serum triglycerides , and low serum high-density lipoprotein HDL.

Main article: Central obesity. Main articles: Diabetes mellitus and Diabetes mellitus type 2. Main article: Coronary artery disease. Main article: Lipodystrophy. Main article: Epidemiology of metabolic syndrome. Cardiology Research and Practice. Current Hypertension Reports. Journal of the American College of Cardiology.


Diabetes Care. Nature Clinical Practice Cardiovascular Medicine. British Journal of Nutrition.

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PLoS One. Bibcode : PLoSO Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Sleep Medicine Reviews.

Psychological Medicine. The American Journal of Psychiatry. Clinical Nutrition. American Journal of Physiology.

Microbiota and metabolites in metabolic diseases | Nature Reviews Endocrinology

Renal Physiology. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. CNS Spectrums. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. Journal of Internal Medicine. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. McGraw-Hill Medical. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Current Opinion in Lipidology. Acta Medica Indonesiana. Understanding Nutrition.

4/12/2013- Acute Metabolic Disease in the Newborn

Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. The endocannabinoid system ECS is known to exert regulatory control on essentially every aspect related to the search for, and the intake, metabolism and storage of calories, and consequently it represents a potential pharmacotherapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and eating disorders.

In this review, we discuss these recent advances and how they may allow targeting the ECS in a more specific and selective manner for the future development of therapies against obesity, metabolic syndrome, and eating disorders. The etiology of many appetitive disorders is characterized by a pathogenic component of reward-supported craving, be it for substances of abuse including alcohol and nicotine or food. Such maladies affect large numbers of people as prevalent socioeconomic and healthcare burdens. Yet in most instances drugs for their safe and effective pharmacotherapeutic management are lacking despite the attendant medical needs, collateral adverse physical and psychological effects, and enormous global market potential.

The endocannabinoid signaling system plays a critical role in motivational homeostasis as a conduit for reward stimuli and a positive modulator of brain reward circuits.

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Endocannabinoid-system hyperactivity through CB1 receptor transmission is considered contributory to a range of appetitive disorders and, hence, is a major focus of contemporary pharmaceutical research. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Experimental Biology and Medicine. Dec Nature Submitted manuscript.

Bibcode : Natur. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. World Health Organization. Archived from the original PDF on 21 August Retrieved 25 March Journal of Gastroenterology.